A New World Was Born: The Greatness of the 18th Century Enlightenment

By Mike Gustafson

Jean d’Alembert, a premiere 18th century philosophe, characterized his era’s unbounded confidence in man’s mind when he wrote: “The true system of the world has been recognized, developed and perfected”1. He lived in The Age of Enlightenment. It was an age charged with a bustling enthusiasm that sent pens scratching across infinite pages and launched a thousand Essays, Discourses, Considerations, Inquiries, and Histories. D’Alembert illustrates this “fermentation of minds” as “spreading through nature in all directions like a river which has burst its dams”2. The source of the burgeoning energy that swept through Europe was the light of science. The 18th century carried the torch of the Scientific Revolution, eschewing darkness from all of Nature’s secrets.

The professional scene was satiated with doctors and botanists, political philosophers and lawyers, physicists and chemists, economists and historians. There was the Comte de Buffon, who presided over the Royal Gardens in France and ruled over the animal and mineral kingdoms3—and Carl Linnaeus who ruled over the kingdom of plants and gave new names to eight thousand species4. There was Denis Diderot who organized the knowledge of over a hundred philosophes into the seventeen volume Encylclopédie—and Montesquieu who surveyed the entire nature of Law. There was Adam Smith who discovered the nature and causes of the wealth of nations—and Christopher Ebeling, who indefatigably wrote seven volumes on the history of America, woke at five in the morning and worked until midnight, and attributed his perseverance to “the animating beauty of the object”5.

These philosophes disagreed on many important issues; but despite their differences, the most striking characteristic of Enlightenment is its intellectual unity. The 18th century saw the development of the greatest marketplace of ideas in human history. The large family of philosophes traded ideas across oceans and throughout continents; from Paris to Naples, from Edinburgh to Göttingen, from Boston to Philadelphia. A new Treatise or Inquiry was bound to be bought, analyzed, digested, and either tossed aside, torn apart, polemicized, or exalted as it passed through the gauntlet of critique. As a result of such free expression only the best theories rose to the top, and they did so based only on their objective merits. The basic test that any new theory had to pass was contained in a single question: Is it true? The final arbiter—and the common ground between all philosophes—was reality. The 18th century intellectuals were united by the common aim of discovering the truth about reality. This alone, however, was not unique to the Enlightenment; the 17th century intellectuals also shared the aim of discovering the truths of reality. The essential characteristic that differentiates 18th century philosophes from 17th century intellectuals was not a common aim, but a common method.

In the 17th century, there were two methods of acquiring knowledge of the world—empiricism and rationalism. Both camps agreed that the ultimate aim of philosophical inquiry was to acquire knowledge of reality but they differed in respect to the proper method by which to achieve this goal. The rationalist method had existed previous to the 17th century, but it was not secularized and systematized until the work of René Descartes. For him, the source of knowledge was the mind, in which certain innate ideas were the starting point from which all truths were derived. The method by which a rationalist acquires knowledge is deduction—which means, logical inference starting from first principles. Seventeen years before Descartes published his Discourse on Method, Francis Bacon published his Novus Organum, or, New Instrument. Bacon was the father of modern empiricism. He created his new method in response to the rationalism that surrounded him. The Baconian method is commonly known as the scientific method. For Bacon, the source of knowledge was reality and the primary method of acquiring knowledge was induction. The empiricists believe that knowledge is derived from and validated by experience. Although both the rationalists and empiricists sought to discover the truths of reality, the differences in their method split 17th century philosophers into two warring camps.

How did the intellectual dichotomy of the 17th century become the overwhelming unity of the 18th century? The answer to this question, as well as the weight of the Enlightenment’s greatness, rest firmly on the shoulders of one man—Isaac Newton—and one book— Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. With this book, Newton truly revolutionized man’s power to know the world through science. Even though contemporary scholars point to revolutions in science that predated Newton, it is a historical fact that Newton’s Principia was the first work to be recognize during its time as a revolution in science.6 Newton’s contributions were revolutionary because he integrated the best aspects of the rational and empirical epistemological methods. The crowning jewel of rationalism was mathematics because it is a purely logical and deductive system derived from first principles. A theory that was mathematically provable was necessarily true. In the other camp, the empiricists derived their influence and power from experience. They had the advantage of being able to perceive, in the real world, the truths that they claimed to exist. On the one hand there were mathematical truths and on the other there were experiential truths—and both camps thought that they alone had the right method. The rationalists claimed that the empirical method lacked a logical foundation; the empiricists claimed that the rational method lacked a perceivable foundation. There was a missing link that was need to unify the natural world and the mind; the empiricists and the rationalists; natural philosophy and mathematics.

Given the dichotomy between natural philosophy and mathematics, it should not be surprising that the pivotal work which resolved this problem is called, in English: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. According to Newtonian scholar I. Bernard Cohen, “the most revolutionary aspect of Newton’s Principia was the elaboration of an incredibly successful method of dealing mathematically with the realities of the external world as revealed by experiment and observation…” 7 In addition to the many discoveries made by Newton—in optics, calculus, celestial mechanics, and dynamics—the most powerful aspect of his achievements was his new scientific method. His method consisted in two parts: first, the creation of mathematical principles—second, the application of these principles to reality. Newton had the ability to see the mathematical principles that lie behind and give rise to natural phenomena. From these principles, he created a mathematical system which explained the motions of material bodies. This system was presented in the third book of the Principia called, The System of the World, and it applied the principles that were developed in the first two books. Newton unified rationalism and empiricism into a single scientific method. As a result, not only were the 18th century philosophes united by the common aim of discovering the truths of reality; in addition, they were united by a common method of acquiring these truths.

Newton’s genius was not only a primary source 18th century Enlightenment; he was also its symbol. “While science was surrendering old mysteries, the men of the Enlightenment constructed a new mystique: they satisfied their need for a representative figure, their craving for a hero, through Isaac Newton.”8 Voltaire worshiped Newton and worked indefatigably to promote his discoveries and his method throughout Europe. The renown University of Edinburgh Medical School achieved world acclaim for implementing “the new scientific methodology of the age: a Newtonian observation-based rationalism.”9 The development of the sciences in every field can be seen as the result of Newton’s method. Everywhere botanists, philosophers, physicians, historians, etc, were validating principles with observable phenomena. Voltaire proclaimed: “We are all [Newton’s] disciples now.”10 And, as much as Voltaire extolled Newton, Alexander Pope took the prize for the most famous praise of Sir Newton when he wrote: “Nature and Nature’s laws lay hid in night; God said, ‘Let Newton be!’ and all was light.”

Newton’s achievements were only the starting point of the greatness of the 18th century. Although he revolutionized man’s power to know the world, he did not use this power to enhance the conditions of man’s life. It was not Newton himself, but his successors that attempted to apply his theories to practical advantage. In addition to understanding man’s ability to know the world through science, they also harnessed man’s ability to re-shape the world through the arts, i.e., through man’s creative ability. The Enlightenment boasted scores of men eager to translate abstract theories into practical reality. In politics, the Founding Fathers proclaimed man’s right to the pursuit of his own happiness and “were determined to establish on earth the conditions required for man’s proper existence”11. They transformed abstract theories of political science into concrete political institutions and documents. In industry, James Watt perfected the steam engine—called “the work engine of the Industrial Revolution”12—and, together with Matthew Boulton, supplied the European markets with the power of steam. Watt’s discovery was the final phase in the attempt to harness the power of steam. The creation of his engine depended on numerous scientific discoveries—most notably, the discovery of Boyle’s law. In medicine, Edwin Jenner, although his achievements crossed into the next century, discovered the cure for smallpox, “one of history’s most lethal killers”13. The method of Jenner’s discovery was unmistakably Newtonian. He developed a hypothesis and then tested it with a controlled experiment. Each of these men greatly improved the conditions of man’s life on earth; and none of their creations would have been possible without previous discoveries in the sciences.

The crucial value of the Age of Enlightenment, however, was not to be found in the arts or sciences alone, but in the new-found relationship between the two—the relationship between the acquisition of knowledge and its application; between man’s ability to know the world and his ability to re-shape it; between theory and practice; between thought and action. The concept that subsumes both aspects of man’s life, that was fixed firmly at the helm of the Enlightenment, supplying its motive power and directing its course, was: Reason. Before the 18th century, reason was either subverted to Faith—as in the Middle Ages—or cast aside as ‘idle speculation’. “For the first time in modern history, an authentic respect for reason became the mark of an entire culture. Reason, for so long the wave of the future, had become the animating force of the present.”14 The key to the Enlightenment’s rational revolution was the recognition that Reason is powerful.

Reason, as a concept, had been around since Ancient Greece, but never before the Enlightenment had its power been recognized. Francis Bacon was the first to truly understand the relationship between thought and action, and consequently, the true power of man’s mind. His work had a heavy influence on the Enlightenment. In his Novus Organum, he wrote, “Knowledge and human power are synonymous, since the ignorance of the cause frustrates the effect; for nature is only subdued by submission, and that which in contemplative philosophy corresponds with the cause in practical science becomes the rule.”15 Bacon understood the power of reason and defined its operative principle: nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed. Only by discovering the laws of nature can man shape the world to suit his purposes. The effortless agility with which Bacon moves between man’s mind and his actions later became one of the distinguishing characteristics of Enlightenment philosophes—they saw, in a single mental frame, the inseparable unity of thought and action. The evidence here is obvious: the fundamental character of a philosophe was two-fold; he was a thinker and a man of action.16

There were two revolutions in the 18th century which represented the perfect unity of thought and action. The American Revolution realized the best theories of political philosophy and the Industrial Revolution realized the discoveries made in the natural sciences. Both Revolutions were the result of man’s increasing power to improve the conditions of his life on earth. One of the theories that applied to both the political philosophers and the industrialists was laissez-faire economics. In respect to politics, laissez-faire is an economic application of the principles of freedom and individual rights. The government should leave man alone to live his own life, including his choices of trade, employment, finance, etc. In respect to industry, increase in the practice of laissez-faire economics in Britain—as opposed to mercantilism—allowed the increase in the industrial arts. “The philosophes…recognized that the commercial spirit of [laissez-faire] capitalism and the new social order it promoted were vital parts of their agenda for the advancement of mankind.”17 Adam Smith was the premiere 18th century economist who validated the productive activities of profit-seeking capitalists.18 The economic freedom that grew throughout 18th century Britain opened up markets to the common man—exposing talent that previously, and elsewhere in Europe, was suppressed.

Many of the inventions that drove man out of poverty were created by commoners—the self-made men—the archetype of which is Benjamin Franklin, who started out in life making soap as the fifteenth son of a chandler. He created the American Philosophical Society—for, “all philosophical Experiments that let Light into the Nature of Things [and] tend to increase the Power of Man over Matter”19. He was the Postmaster General and a printer, a journalist, a scientist, a politician, a diplomat, a educator, and a statesman. He assisted in the creation of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution. “He could contrive, with equal facility, a subscription library or a colonial union; he could fashion a new stove and a new commonwealth; he could draft the constitution of a club, a learned society, or a state; he could organize a fire company, a post office, or a military alliance; he could perfect a new musical instrument, test the winds and tides, chart the Gulf Stream, and confound mathematicians with magical squares. He could snatch the lightning from the skies and the scepter from the hands of tyrants.”20 The essence of Franklin’s greatness does not lie in his particular creations; but in the supremacy of his character. He was a symbol of virtue, of pride, of rationality, and he was the prototype of the self-made man.

The great advances in transportation were also developed by self-made men. John Rennie worked as a millwright to afford to go to the University of Edinburgh—he went on to “produce both the Waterloo and New London Bridges across the Thames, the London and East India Docks, the Plymouth Breakwater, several harbors and numerous other construction projects.” Thomas Telford was “reared in crushing poverty” and went on to become the “Father of Civil Engineering.” He constructed some of the most important canals and over a thousand bridges. James Brindley, also born into poverty, was a pioneer canal builder who constructed over four hundred miles of canals.21 “The Enlightenment’s glorification and liberation of human intelligence, regardless of the birth status or class background of an individual, was the fundamental cause of the era’s ability to make such spectacular progress in applied science, medicine, technology, industry and business. An individual’s mind and his initiative counted not his birth or social class.”22

The British Industrial Revolution revolved around a single product: cotton. Previous inventions such as James Hargreaves’ spinning Jenny in 1764, Kay’s flying shuttle in 1733, and Arkwright’s stronger thread in 1769 had led the gradual growth of the cotton industry. Suddenly, in 1785, Watt’s perfection of the steam engine and his partnership with Boulton led to the “Big Bang of the Industrial Revolution.”23 Production of cotton rose from half a million pounds in 1765 to twelve million pounds in 1784. As a result of the increased production, costs plummeted, and hundreds of millions of people, all over the world, “were able to dress comfortably and cleanly at last.”24 As a result of plummeting costs, real wages and the overall standard of living rose dramatically. The implementation of steam power and the vastly improved transportation systems improved the material conditions of man’s life on earth—and the fountainhead of all of this success was the unleashed power of man’s mind. As Dr. Bernstein, a 21st century philosopher, often says: “Machine Power is Mind Power”. No longer did man live by the shovel and the yoke; instead, he used his mind to discover the principles of nature and apply them to the practical problem of survival.

As the Industrial Revolution proves, the Enlightenment philosophy was a practical philosophy. The philosophes were not engaged in abstract system building like 17th century philosophers such as Descartes, Leibniz, and Spinoza; instead, they were focused on Progress. The Industrial Revolution was concrete evidence than man can improve the material conditions of his life. The inventions were new, the standard of living was new, the prosperity was new. The 18th century was a new chapter in the history of man—and the philosophes knew it. They had a self-awareness of their historical position as the liberator of man from his long and doleful past. Voltaire was the leading crusader who had unquestionably contributed the most in the struggle to make man a happier and freer member of society 25. In his essay On Superstition he wrote: “We can, by speech and pen, make men more enlightened and better.”26 Religious superstition and the Church bore the brunt of his attacks. He referred to superstition as the ‘infamous’ and his famous saying was écrasez l’infâme, or, ‘crush the infamous’. The 18th century intellectuals regarded religious superstition, speculative philosophy, tyranny and oppression as the bankrupt institutions of the past. Thomas Jefferson illustrated the Enlightenment’s view of the past in a letter to a friend: “We might as well require a man to wear still the coat which fitted him when a boy, as civilized society to remain ever under the regimen of their barbarous ancestors.”27

The Enlightenment commitment to Progress was not only manifest in respect to industry and politics, but also in respect to man’s personal life. The ultimate aim of individual progress was achieving happiness on earth. Man was no longer the victim of crushing political forces or unknowable mystical whims. He was a rational man, who was capable of using his powerful mind to direct the course of his own life. In a letter to Madison, Thomas Jefferson wrote: “The Giver of life gave it for happiness and not for wretchedness.”28 He believed that man had the power to control his own destiny; he was not at the mercy of chance, tradition, or custom. In his Notes on Virginia, Jefferson wrote: “Our greatest happiness does not depend on the condition of life in which chance has placed us, but is always the result of a good conscience, good health, occupation, and freedom in all just pursuits.”29 And, to secure this freedom, Jefferson forged man’s right to pursue his own happiness into the most powerful political document in history—the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson also offered insight into the means to achieve happiness. In another letter to a friend, he wrote: “Be assiduous in learning, take much exercise for your health, and practice much virtue. Health, learning and virtue will insure your happiness; they will give you a quiet conscience, private esteem and public honor.”31

“Without virtue, happiness cannot be.”31 The Enlightenment praised virtue as the means which led man towards happiness. Some of the virtues of the Enlightenment included integrity, productivity, benevolence, temperance, and rationality. Many of the philosophes believed that man had the power to be perfectly virtuous. Before the Scientific Revolution, perfection had been the defining characteristic of the heavens; whereas man was necessarily imperfect. Galileo stole perfection from the heavens, and the philosophes fashioned it into a trophy for man. Benjamin Franklin is renowned for his pursuit of moral perfection. He wanted to be completely virtuous at all times. In his autobiography, he wrote, “It was about this time I conceiv’d the bold and arduous project of arriving at moral perfection. I wish’d to live without committing any fault at any time; I would conquer all that either natural inclination, custom, or company might lead me into. As I knew, or thought I knew, what was right and wrong, I did not see why I might not always do the one and avoid the other.”32 The Enlightenment held that “just as there are no limits to man’s knowledge…so there are no limits to man’s moral improvement. If man is not yet perfect, they held, he is at least perfectible.”33

A virtuous man seeking moral perfection and happiness on earth is not likely to abdicate his powers to the arbitrary rule of a distant Monarch—he has too much self-esteem. Throughout history, though, man was ruled by Kings and Church’s. In the 18th century, this paradigm was torn and their account on man’s body and soul, respectively, had overdrawn. John Locke, a 17th century philosopher, was the first champion of Liberty and the fountainhead of the 18th century battle for freedom. Locke proclaimed that man was naturally free and therefore his freedom was his by right—not privilege. In his Two Treatises of Civil Government, he wrote: “Man being born…with a title to perfect freedom… hath by nature a power…to preserve his property, that is, his life, liberty and estate, against the injuries and attempts of other men.”34 It is right for man be free to choose how to live his own life. It is right for man to keep the products of his effort. It is right for man to be free from physical force, oppression, and tyranny. Man’s rights are natural; they are inalienable; “they are born with him; exist with him; and cannot be taken from him by any human power without taking his life.”35

The theory of liberty is one thing, but the power of the Enlightenment consists in its unification of theory and practice—this was the task of the Founding Fathers. “The genius of the Founding Fathers was their ability not only to grasp the revolutionary ideas of the period, but to devise a means of implementing those ideas in practice, a means of translating them from the realm of philosophic abstraction into that of sociopolitical reality.”36 The American Enlightenment was primarily political. Law was the common denominator among the Founding Fathers. “In America, politics was the universal preoccupation, legislation the universal resource, and Constitutions the universal panacea.”37

In the words of John Adams, the American Enlightenment “realized the theories of the wisest writers.”38 For example, they realized the theory of popular sovereignty. “Throughout history the State had been regarded…as the ruler of the individual—as a sovereign authority…The Founding Fathers challenged this primordial notion. They started with the premise of the primacy and sovereignty of the individual.”39 The recognition of popular sovereignty was the solution to a long-standing political problem: the balance of power. In the preceding centuries the idea of federalism had begun to sprout. It was a system of a central Nation sharing power with regional states. The task of delineating the respective powers between the Nation and the states necessarily led to conflict. The Founding Fathers found the solution. They “substituted for the rival authorities…of state and nation a single authority—the people of the United States, from whom came all power, and who, in their sovereign capacity, delegated appropriate powers to state and nation.”40 They also realized the theory of separation of power. The power of government derived from the people, but it was not a direct transfer of power; rather, as the powers were surrendered by the people they were fragmented to prevent future consolidation. James Madison describes this process: “In the compound republic of America, the power surrendered by the people is first divided between two distinct governments, and then the portion allotted to each subdivided among distinct and separate departments.”41 The Constitution and the Bill of Rights realized the best of the Enlightenment’s political theories: natural rights, popular sovereignty, balance and separation of powers, and federalism.

The true power of the American Revolution was not found on the pages of political documents, but on the battlefields of the Revolutionary War. After the victory at Yorktown in 1781, the American continental army had defeated the greatest military power in the world. It is necessary to attribute part to their victory the help from the French, the superior leadership of George Washington, good fortune, the distance over the ocean, and the fact that the American’s were on the defensive. But it is also necessary to mention the role of the Spirit of Liberty. On July 4, 1776, fifty-six men pledged their ‘lives, liberties, and sacred honor’ to defend the freedom of America. Some of those men lost their lives, others lost their property, but all upheld their oath. The American’s were fighting for something; whereas the British were fighting to avoid something. The American’s had a beacon to march towards—their Liberty.

The Spirit of Liberty was the motive force behind the American Revolution both metaphorically and literally. On the eve of revolution the political atmosphere bore a tension between the inevitability of war on the one hand and a last hope for peaceful resolution on the other. There were some men who already had set their hearts on fighting for Liberty—Patrick Henry was one of those men. On March 23, 1775, at St. Johns Church in Richmond, he spoke before the Virginia House. Henry rose and delivered his famous speech, sweeping aside all cowardice with his towering spirit: “There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged! Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable — and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come…Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!”42 The principle of ‘liberty or death’ was the motivation, whether implicitly or explicitly, for every soldier that fought during the war. And, on the battlefield at Yorktown, those who had been willing to pay the price of death, and survived, had raised the torch of liberty for the enlightenment of all Americans.

In his pamphlet Common Sense—which, when published in 1776, offered the common American explicit formulation of the reasons of their approaching Revolution—Thomas Paine wrote: “We have it in our power to begin the world over again…The birthday of a new world is at hand.” Indeed it was. It was the birthday of a new nation—“the nation of the Enlightenment”.43 The birth of America was the “glorious ending to the only era of reason in twenty-three centuries of Western philosophy.”44 The 18th century was the century of the mind realizing its full potential. Man’s mind was liberated from the shackles of tyranny; it was free to think, to disagree, to create, and to direct the course of his own life and the course of history. His mind was empowered first by the Newtonian revolution and then by the marriage of theory and practice; of thought and action—he commanded nature by obeying its Laws. Man set out to re-shape the world in the image of his ideal, settling for nothing less than perfection. He proved that man was not doomed to poverty, oppression, and misery—because he could achieve prosperity, liberty, and happiness on this earth. The 18th century Enlightenment understood and harnessed the power of man’s mind—it unleashed all the Good that life has to offer and, consequently, a new world was born.

Citations:

Cassirer, Ernst. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Princeton (N.J.): Princeton UP, 1979. 3. Print.
Cassirer, Ernst. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Princeton (N.J.): Princeton UP, 1979. 3. Print.
Commager, Henry S. Empire of Reason. Phoenix. 7. Print.
Ibid. 8.
Ibid. 12.
Cohen, I. Bernard. The Newtonian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1980. 49. Print.
Ibid. 51.
Gay, Peter. The Enlightenment: an Interpretation. New York: Peter Smith, 1996. 128. Print.
Bernstein, Andrew. The Capitalist Manifesto: the Historic, Economic and Philosophic Case for Laissez-faire. Lanham, MD: University of America, 2005. 93. Print.
Gay, Peter. The Enlightenment: an Interpretation. New York: Peter Smith, 1996. 129. Print.
Rand, Ayn. For the New Intellectual: the Philosophy of Ayn Rand. New York: Signet, 2005. 25. Print.
Bernstein, Andrew. The Capitalist Manifesto: the Historic, Economic and Philosophic Case for Laissez-faire. Lanham, MD: University of America, 2005. 79. Print.
Ibid. 93.
Peikoff, Leonard. “The Nation of the Enlightenment.” The Ominous Parallels: the End of Freedom in America. New York: Meridian, 1993. Print.
Bacon, Francis. Novus Organum. 1620.
Rand, Ayn. For the New Intellectual: the Philosophy of Ayn Rand. New York: Signet, 2005. 25. Print.
Bernstein, Andrew. The Capitalist Manifesto: the Historic, Economic and Philosophic Case for Laissez-faire. Lanham, MD: University of America, 2005. 73. Print.
Ibid. 75.
Commager, Henry S. Empire of Reason. Phoenix. 19. Print.
Ibid. 20.
Bernstein, Andrew. The Capitalist Manifesto: the Historic, Economic and Philosophic Case for Laissez-faire. Lanham, MD: University of America, 2005. 83-86. Print.
Ibid.93.
Ibid. 105.
Ibid. 106.
“Voltaire, Philosopher of Human Progress.” Modern Language Association 74.4 (1959): 356-64.JSOR. Web. .
Voltaire. On Superstition.
Jefferson’s letter to Samuel Kerchival 1816, http://files.libertyfund.org/files/2373/JeffersonianCyclopedia1572_Bk.pdf
Jefferson, Thomas. Letter to James Madison. 1782. from the Jefferson Cyclopedia at the Online Liberty Library.
Ibid. Notes on Virginia. 1782
Ibid. Letter to Peter Carr. 1788
Ibid. Letter to George Logan. 1816
Benjamin Franklin’s Autobiography.
Peikoff, Leonard. “The Nation of the Enlightenment.” The Ominous Parallels: the End of Freedom in America. New York: Meridian, 1993. Print.
Locke, John. Of Political or Civil Society. Two Treatises on Civil Government. 1689.
Peikoff, Leonard. “The Nation of the Enlightenment.” The Ominous Parallels: the End of Freedom in America. New York: Meridian, 1993. Print.
Ibid.
Commager, Henry S. Empire of Reason. Phoenix. 177. Print.
Ibid. 183
Peikoff, Leonard. “The Nation of the Enlightenment.” The Ominous Parallels: the End of Freedom in America. New York: Meridian, 1993. Print.
Commager, Henry S. Empire of Reason. Phoenix. 192. Print.
Ibid. 194.
Henry, Patrick. Give Me Liberty, Or Give Me Death. Speech.
Peikoff, Leonard. “The Nation of the Enlightenment.” The Ominous Parallels: the End of Freedom in America. New York: Meridian, 1993. Print.
Ibid.

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